The main objective of the agreement is to keep the rise in global average temperature well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels” mainly by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement differs from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, the last widely used amendment to the UNFCCC, in that it does not establish annexes to reduce the liability of developing countries. On the contrary, emissions targets have been negotiated separately for each country and must be implemented voluntarily, prompting U.S. officials to view the Paris Agreement as an executive agreement rather than a legally binding treaty. This escaped the obligation for the U.S. Congress to ratify the agreement.  In April 2016, the United States became a signatory to the Paris Agreement and accepted it by executive order in September 2016. President Obama has promised the United States to contribute $3 billion to the Green Climate Fund.  The Fund aims to raise $100 billion annually by 2020. Iran, Iraq and Libya – all among the 14 members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – and conflict-torn states such as Yemen and South Sudan have not ratified the deal. “The U.S. withdrawal, if supported by the next administration, will inevitably lead some countries to scale back their efforts to implement existing commitments,” Oppenheimer said.
“They take their time, they say that if the U.S. isn`t there, then we don`t have to rush to do anything at this point,” said Carlos Fuller, chief negotiator for the Alliance of Small Island States. There are certain reporting obligations to ensure that countries make progress, but the Trump administration has flouted them and so far suffered no consequences. The Paris Agreement is an agreement within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that addresses the mitigation, adaptation and financing of greenhouse gas emissions from 2020 on or after 2020. The agreement aims to address the global threat of climate change by keeping global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius above pre-administrative levels and continuing efforts to further limit the temperature increase to 1.5 degrees Celsius.  The seven countries that have not yet ratified the agreement account for about 4% of global greenhouse gas emissions, according to the European Commission`s emissions database. The United States, the second largest emitter after China, accounts for 13%. Other major economies, such as Japan and South Korea, pledged last month to become carbon neutral by 2050, but did not detail how they will achieve this. In total, more than 60 countries around the world – including all EU Member States except Poland – have committed to achieving net-zero emissions by mid-century. “While we`re the ones pointing out these potential scenarios of problems with other countries, we seem to be the biggest problem,” Light says. Since then, Turkey has argued that it is a developing country and that it has been granted special circumstances that allow it to choose from the provision of funds. But he still cannot access climate money, a condition that President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan says must change if Turkey wants to ratify the deal.
The 1. In June 2017, U.S. President Donald Trump announced that the U.S. would withdraw from the deal.  Pursuant to Article 28, the Agreement, which entered into force in the United States on November 4, 2016, is the closest possible effective withdrawal date for the United States on November 4, 2020. If it had decided to withdraw by withdrawing from the UNFCCC, it could terminate it immediately (the UNFCCC entered into force for the United States in 1994) and enter into force a year later. On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration issued an official notice to the United Nations stating that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally authorized to do so.  The call for resignation could not be submitted until the agreement was in force for the United States for 3 years in 2019.   President Trump had initially announced his intention to withdraw from the agreement in the summer of 2017, shortly after taking office. .